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<title>WHIZARD 2.4
A generic
Monte-Carlo integration and event generation package
for multi-particle processes
MANUAL
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<head>
<title>WHIZARD</title>
<link href="whizard.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
</head>
<body>
<h1> The WHIZARD Event Generator </h1>
<h2> The Generator of Monte Carlo Event Generators
for Tevatron, LHC, ILC, CLIC, CEPC, FCC-ee, FCC-hh, SppC and other High Energy Physics Experiments</h2>
<hr />
<h3>
What is WHIZARD?
</h3>
<p>
WHIZARD
is a program system designed for the efficient calculation
of multi-particle scattering cross sections and simulated event
samples.
</p>
<p>
Tree-level matrix elements are generated automatically for arbitrary
partonic processes by using the Optimized Matrix Element Generator
O'Mega. Matrix elements obtained by alternative methods (e.g., including loop
corrections) may be interfaced as well. The program is able to
calculate numerically stable signal and background cross sections and
generate unweighted event samples with reasonable efficiency for
processes with up to eight final-state particles; more particles are
possible. For more particles, there is the option to generate
processes as decay cascades including complete spin correlations.
Different options for QCD parton showers are available.
</p>
<p>
Polarization is treated exactly for both the initial and final states.
Final-state quark or lepton flavors can be summed over automatically
where needed. For hadron collider physics, an interface to the
standard LHAPDF is provided. For Linear Collider physics,
beamstrahlung (CIRCE) and ISR spectra are included for electrons
and photons.
The events can be written to file in standard formats,
including ASCII, StdHEP, the Les Houches event format (LHEF),
HepMC, or LCIO. These event files can then be hadronized.
</p>
<p>
WHIZARD supports the Standard Model and a huge number of BSM models.
Model extensions or completely different models can be added.
There are also interfaces to FeynRules and SARAH.
</p>
<div class="whizbox">
<h3>
CURRENT RELEASE
</h3>
<ul>
<li CLASS="li-itemize">
<p>
<b>
<span style="color:blue">
The official version is 2.4.1. (released:
Mar 24th, 2017.)
</span>
</b>
</br>
<br/>
<br/>
The distribution tarball of the
sources can be found here
(<a href="http://www.hepforge.org/archive/whizard/whizard-2.4.1.tar.gz">link</a>).
<br/>
</p>
</li>
<li CLASS="li-itemize">
<p>
Before installing WHIZARD, you should check the
<a href="compilers.html">note on compilers</a> and the page on possible
<a href="http://projects.hepforge.org/whizard/trac/wiki/BuildProblems">
build problems</a> in the
<a href="http://projects.hepforge.org/whizard/trac/wiki">
WHIZARD Wiki</a>.
</p>
</li>
<li CLASS="li-itemize">
<p>
<b> The manual for WHIZARD 2 </b> is not yet completed. We
regularly update the version from the distributions (<a href="manual.pdf">
link</a>, last update: 2016-11-29).
There is also a
<a href="manual">HTML version of the manual</a>.
You can find a few
<a href="http://projects.hepforge.org/whizard/trac/wiki">worked physics examples</a>
in the
<a href="http://projects.hepforge.org/whizard/trac/wiki">WHIZARD Wiki</a>.
The documented source code can be found here
(<a href="whizard.pdf">link</a>).
There is also a <a href="gamelan_manual.pdf">manual</a> for GAMELAN, the graphics
package based on MetaPost for WHIZARD's internal analyses.
</p>
</li>
<li CLASS="li-itemize">
<p>
You may also want to inspect the latest <a href="news.html"><b>news</b></a> and the
<b>list of <a href="CHANGES">changes</a></b>.
</p>
</li>
<li CLASS="li-itemize">
<p>
Prerelease versions, alpha versions, patches, and unofficial versions
might be found here
(<a href="versions">link</a>). This contains also the "instant" WHIZARD install scripts.
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<b> MAC OS X MacPorts: </b> Since version 2.1.0, WHIZARD is now
available for MAC OS X on MacPorts!
</p>
<p>
<b> MAC OS X Darwin >= 10.11: </b> There is a known issue
on Darwin >= 10.11 concerning the test suite. Confer the wiki for more information.
</p>
</li>
<li CLASS="li-itemize">
<p>
Service for archaeologists and regression testers: <b>old sources</b> are kept here
(<a href="http://www.hepforge.org/archive/whizard/">link</a>) and here (<a href="oldsrc/">link</a>).
</p>
</li>
</ul>
</div>
<p></p>
<div class="whizbox">
<h3>
The WHIZARD team, contact, funding
</h3>
<p>
<b>WHIZARD has been written by</b> <br>
<span style="color:blue">
Wolfgang Kilian (U. Siegen)<br>
Thorsten Ohl (U. W&uuml;rzburg)<br>
J&uuml;rgen
Reuter (DESY)</span>
</p>
<p>
<b>Further members of the WHIZARD team are (special topics): </b><br>
<span style="color:blue">
Fabian Bach (DESY)</span>
: top physics, anomalous top couplings, ROOT and HOPPET interfaces, NRQCD resummation, <br>
<span style="color:blue">
Simon Brass (U. Siegen)</span>
: EW physics, parallelization, performance, <br>
<span style="color:blue">
Bijan Chokoufe Nejad (DESY)</span>
: Multi-jet physics, parallelization, shower/matching, top physics, top threshold <br>
<span style="color:blue">
Christian Fleper (U. Siegen)</span>
: NLO QED+EW, photon matching and merging, <br>
<span style="color:blue">
Sebastian Schmidt (U. Freiburg)</span>
: Shower, Matching, PYTHIA interface, <br>
<span style="color:blue">
Marco Sekulla (KIT)</span>
: EW physics/resonances, unitarization, <br>
<span style="color:blue">
So Young Shim (DESY)</span>
: dim 6-operators, <br>
<span style="color:blue">
Christian Speckner (W&uuml;rzburg)</span>
: Beam polarization, FeynRules interface, 3-site models, NLO and dipoles, <br>
<span style="color:blue">
Florian Staub (CERN)</span>
: SARAH interface, FeynRules interface (partially), <br>
<span style="color:blue">
Christian Weiss (DESY)</span>
: NLO automation, FKS subtraction, phase space, <br>
<span style="color:blue">
Zhijie Zhao (U. Siegen)</span>
: NLO QCD, e+e- physics.
</p>
<table>
<tr>
<td> Contact:
</td>
<td>
&nbsp;
<img src="email.gif" alt="mail" />
</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p>
The current version is
<a href="http://www.hepforge.org/archive/whizard/whizard-2.4.1.tar.gz">2.4.1 (Mar 24th, 2017)</a>
</p>
<p>The WHIZARD project is a part of the Strategic Helmholtz Alliance
<a href="http://www.terascale.de/">Physics at the Terascale</a>.
We are furthermore supported or have been supported in earlier
stages of this work by the German Bundesministerium f&uuml;r
Bildung und Forschung (BMBF), the German Deutsche
Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), and the Ministerium f&uuml;r
Wissenschaft und Kultur (MWK) of the state
Baden-W&uuml;rttemberg.
</p>
<p>
We gratefully thank the contributions from our former team members:
Hans-Werner Boschmann (U. Siegen), Steffen Schwertfeger (U. Siegen),
Matthias Trudewind (U. Siegen),
Daniel Wiesler (DESY)
</p>
</div>
</title>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="manual.css">
</head>
<body >
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<table class="title"><tr><td style="padding:1ex"><h1 class="titlemain"><span style="font-family:monospace"><span style="font-size:xx-large">WHIZARD 2.4</span></span> <br>
A generic <br>
Monte-Carlo integration and event generation package <br>
for multi-particle processes<br>
MANUAL
<sup><a id="text1" href="#note1">1</a></sup>
<br>
</h1><h3 class="titlerest">Wolfgang Kilian,Thorsten Ohl,Jürgen Reuter,with contributions from
Fabian Bach, Bijan Chokoufé Nejad, Christian Fleper, Vincent Rothe, Sebastian Schmidt, Marco Sekulla, Christian Speckner, So Young Shim, Florian Staub, Christian Weiss</h3></td></tr>
</table><ul>
<li><a href="manual001.html">Contents</a>
</li><li><a href="manual002.html">Chapter 1  Introduction</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="manual002.html#sec3">1.1  Disclaimer</a>
</li><li><a href="manual002.html#sec4">1.2  Overview</a>
</li><li><a href="manual002.html#sec5">1.3  Historical remarks</a>
</li><li><a href="manual002.html#sec6">1.4  About examples in this manual</a>
</li></ul>
</li><li><a href="manual003.html">Chapter 2  Installation</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="manual003.html#sec8">2.1  Package Structure</a>
</li><li><a href="manual003.html#sec%3Aprerequisites">2.2  Prerequisites</a>
</li><li><a href="manual003.html#sec21">2.3  Installation</a>
</li><li><a href="manual003.html#sec27">2.4  Working With WHIZARD</a>
</li><li><a href="manual003.html#sec31">2.5  Troubleshooting</a>
</li></ul>
</li><li><a href="manual004.html">Chapter 3  Getting Started</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="manual004.html#sec52">3.1  Hello World</a>
</li><li><a href="manual004.html#sec53">3.2  A Simple Calculation</a>
</li></ul>
</li><li><a href="manual005.html">Chapter 4  Steering WHIZARD: SINDARIN Overview</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="manual005.html#sec55">4.1  The command language for WHIZARD</a>
</li><li><a href="manual005.html#sec56">4.2  SINDARIN scripts</a>
</li><li><a href="manual005.html#sec57">4.3  Errors</a>
</li><li><a href="manual005.html#sec58">4.4  Statements</a>
</li><li><a href="manual005.html#sec85">4.5  Control Structures</a>
</li><li><a href="manual005.html#sec92">4.6  Expressions</a>
</li><li><a href="manual005.html#sec96">4.7  Variables</a>
</li></ul>
</li><li><a href="manual006.html">Chapter 5  Detailed WHIZARD Steering: SINDARIN</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="manual006.html#sec98">5.1  Data and expressions</a>
</li><li><a href="manual006.html#sec104">5.2  Particles and (sub)events</a>
</li><li><a href="manual006.html#sec126">5.3  Physics Models</a>
</li><li><a href="manual006.html#sec127">5.4  Processes</a>
</li><li><a href="manual006.html#sec139">5.5  Beams</a>
</li><li><a href="manual006.html#sec154">5.6  Polarization</a>
</li><li><a href="manual006.html#sec157">5.7  Cross sections</a>
</li><li><a href="manual006.html#sec166">5.8  Events</a>
</li><li><a href="manual006.html#sec173">5.9  Analysis and Visualization</a>
</li><li><a href="manual006.html#sec179">5.10  Custom Input/Output</a>
</li><li><a href="manual006.html#sec185">5.11  WHIZARD next-to-leading order mode</a>
</li></ul>
</li><li><a href="manual007.html">Chapter 6  Random number generators</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="manual007.html#sec195">6.1  General remarks</a>
</li><li><a href="manual007.html#sec196">6.2  The TAO Random Number Generator</a>
</li></ul>
</li><li><a href="manual008.html">Chapter 7  Integration Methods</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="manual008.html#sec198">7.1  The Monte-Carlo integration routine: <span style="font-family:monospace">VAMP</span></a>
</li></ul>
</li><li><a href="manual009.html">Chapter 8  Phase space parameterizations</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="manual009.html#sec200">8.1  General remarks</a>
</li><li><a href="manual009.html#sec201">8.2  The default method: <span style="font-family:monospace">wood</span></a>
</li></ul>
</li><li><a href="manual010.html">Chapter 9  Methods for Hard Interactions</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="manual010.html#sec203">9.1  Internal unit matrix elements</a>
</li><li><a href="manual010.html#sec204">9.2  Template matrix elements</a>
</li><li><a href="manual010.html#sec205">9.3  The O’Mega matrix element generator</a>
</li><li><a href="manual010.html#sec206">9.4  Interface to GoSam</a>
</li></ul>
</li><li><a href="manual011.html">Chapter 10  Implemented physics</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="manual011.html#sec208">10.1  The hard interaction models</a>
</li><li><a href="manual011.html#sec215">10.2  The SUSY Les Houches Accord (SLHA) interface</a>
</li><li><a href="manual011.html#sec216">10.3  Lepton Collider Beam Spectra</a>
</li></ul>
</li><li><a href="manual012.html">Chapter 11  More on Event Generation</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="manual012.html#sec221">11.1  Event generation</a>
</li><li><a href="manual012.html#sec222">11.2  Unweighted and weighted events</a>
</li><li><a href="manual012.html#sec223">11.3  Choice on event normalizations</a>
</li><li><a href="manual012.html#sec224">11.4  Event selection</a>
</li><li><a href="manual012.html#sec225">11.5  Supported event formats</a>
</li><li><a href="manual012.html#sec226">11.6  Interfaces to Parton Showers, Matching and
Hadronization</a>
</li><li><a href="manual012.html#sec229">11.7  Rescanning and recalculating events</a>
</li><li><a href="manual012.html#sec230">11.8  Negative weight events</a>
</li></ul>
</li><li><a href="manual013.html">Chapter 12  User Code Plug-Ins</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="manual013.html#sec232">12.1  The plug-in mechanism</a>
</li><li><a href="manual013.html#sec233">12.2  Data Types Used for Communication</a>
</li><li><a href="manual013.html#sec234">12.3  User-defined Observables and Functions</a>
</li><li><a href="manual013.html#sec242">12.4  User Code and Static Executables</a>
</li></ul>
</li><li><a href="manual014.html">Chapter 13  Data Visualization</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="manual014.html#sec244">13.1  GAMELAN</a>
</li><li><a href="manual014.html#sec246">13.2  Histogram Display</a>
</li><li><a href="manual014.html#sec247">13.3  Plot Display</a>
</li><li><a href="manual014.html#sec248">13.4  Graphs</a>
</li><li><a href="manual014.html#sec249">13.5  Drawing options</a>
</li></ul>
</li><li><a href="manual015.html">Chapter 14  User Interfaces for WHIZARD</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="manual015.html#sec257">14.1  Command Line and SINDARIN Input Files</a>
</li><li><a href="manual015.html#sec258">14.2  WHISH – The <span style="font-family:monospace">WHIZARD</span> Shell/Interactive mode</a>
</li><li><a href="manual015.html#sec259">14.3  Graphical user interface</a>
</li><li><a href="manual015.html#sec260">14.4  WHIZARD as a library</a>
</li></ul>
</li><li><a href="manual016.html">Chapter 15  Examples</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="manual016.html#sec262">15.1  <span style="font-style:italic">Z</span> lineshape at LEP I</a>
</li><li><a href="manual016.html#sec263">15.2  <span style="font-style:italic">W</span> pairs at LEP II</a>
</li><li><a href="manual016.html#sec264">15.3  Higgs search at LEP II</a>
</li><li><a href="manual016.html#sec265">15.4  Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA</a>
</li><li><a href="manual016.html#sec266">15.5  <span style="font-style:italic">W</span> endpoint at LHC</a>
</li><li><a href="manual016.html#sec267">15.6  SUSY Cascades at LHC</a>
</li><li><a href="manual016.html#sec268">15.7  Polarized <span style="font-style:italic">WW</span> at ILC</a>
</li></ul>
</li><li><a href="manual017.html">Chapter 16  Technical details – Advanced Spells</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="manual017.html#sec270">16.1  Efficiency and tuning</a>
</li></ul>
</li><li><a href="manual018.html">Chapter 17  New External Physics Models</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="manual018.html#sec272">17.1  New physics models via <span style="font-family:monospace">SARAH</span></a>
</li><li><a href="manual018.html#sec278">17.2  New physics models via <span style="font-family:monospace">FeynRules</span></a>
</li></ul>
</li><li><a href="manual019.html">Appendix A  SINDARIN Reference</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="manual019.html#sec295">Acknowledgements</a>
</li></ul>
</li><li><a href="manual020.html">References</a>
</li></ul>
<hr class="ffootnoterule"><dl class="thefootnotes"><dt class="dt-thefootnotes">
<a id="note1" href="#text1">1</a></dt><dd class="dd-thefootnotes"><div class="footnotetext">This work is supported by Helmholtz-Alliance “Physics at the
Terascale”.
In former stages this work has also been supported by
the Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft VH–NG–005 <br>
E-mail: <span style="font-family:monospace">whizard@desy.de</span>
</div></dd></dl>
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<hr style="height:2"><blockquote class="quote"><em>This document was translated from L<sup>A</sup>T<sub>E</sub>X by
</em><a href="http://hevea.inria.fr/index.html"><em>H</em><em><span style="font-size:small"><sup>E</sup></span></em><em>V</em><em><span style="font-size:small"><sup>E</sup></span></em><em>A</em></a><em>.</em></blockquote></body>
<h3>
REFERENCES
</h3>
<p>
If you use WHIZARD, please cite the following publications
</p>
<ul>
<li> W. Kilian, T. Ohl, J. Reuter, <i> WHIZARD: Simulating
Multi-Particle Processes at LHC and ILC </i>,
Eur.Phys.J.<b>C71</b> (2011) 1742,
arXiv:
<a href="http://arXiv.org/abs/0708.4233">0708.4233 [hep-ph]</a>
</li>
<li> M. Moretti, T. Ohl, J. Reuter, <i> O'Mega: An Optimizing matrix
element generator </i>, LC-TOOL-2001-040-rev, arXiv:
<a href="http://arXiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0102195">hep-ph/0102195</a>-rev.
</li>
</ul>
<p>
There is also the older (now deprecated) write-up for WHIZARD 1
(please cite the two references on top):
</p>
<ul>
<li> W. Kilian, <i> WHIZARD Manual 1.0</i>, LC-TOOL-2001-039,
<a
href="http://www-flc.desy.de/lcnotes/">http://www-flc.desy.de/lcnotes/</a>.
This document is identical to the manual of version 1.0.
</li>
</ul>
<p>
The reference for the WHIZARD-FeynRules interface is:
</p>
<ul>
<li> N. Christensen, C. Duhr, B. Fuks, J. Reuter, C. Speckner,
Eur.Phys.J.<b>C72</b> (2012) 1990,
arXiv: <a href="http://arxiv.org/abs/1010.3251">1010.3251. [hep-ph]</a>
</li>
</ul>
-->
<hr />
<h3>WORKSHOPS and WHIZARD User Forum</h3>
<ul>
<li>
<p><span style="color:red">
<b>
2nd International WHIZARD Forum, W&uuml;rzburg U., March 16 - 18, 2015
<span style="color:black">
(<a href="https://indico.desy.de/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=10353">link</a>)
<b/>
</span>
</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>
<span style="color:blue">
<b>
1st International WHIZARD Forum, DESY, Nov. 21 - 23, 2011
<span style="color:black">
(<a href="http://indico.desy.de/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=4681">link</a>)
<b/>
</span>
</p>
<p>
<img class="mycenter" src="2015-03-Whizard-Poster_JPG_thumbnail.jpg" alt="logo">
<img class="mycenter" src="2011-11-Whizard-Poster_JPG_thumbnail.jpg" alt="logo">
</p>
</li>
</ul>
<hr />
<h3>
DEVELOPMENT version (SVN trunk)
</h3>
<ul>
<li CLASS="li-itemize">
<p>
You can also access our subversion repository at
<a href="http://whizard.hepforge.org/svn/trunk">
http://whizard.hepforge.org/svn/trunk</a> for <i>checking out</i>
(pun intended!) the current sources. Note, that the svn
contains the latest developer version. In order to be able to
compile the svn version, one has to first generate the <em>configure.ac</em>
by executing the shell script <em>build_master.sh</em>, then generate
the <em>configure</em>
script out of the file <em>configure.ac</em> by running
<em>autoreconf</em> (NOT <em>autoconf</em>) which is part of
the <em>autoconf/automake</em>
<a href="http://www.gnu.org/software/autoconf">
http://www.gnu.org/software/autoconf </a> and
<a href="http://www.gnu.org/software/automake">
http://www.gnu.org/software/automake </a>
package. Furthermore, the development version also needs the
<em>noweb</em> tools to be installed on the system in order to
extract the source codes and documentation from several so
called <em>.nw</em> files. The <em>noweb</em>
package can be downloaded and installed from here:
<a href="http://www.cs.tufts.edu/~nr/noweb">
http://www.cs.tufts.edu/~nr/noweb </a>.
</p>
</li>
</ul>
<p></p>
<p>
Examples of WHIZARD usage:
</p>
<ul>
<li>
A standard reference of SM ILC cross sections can be found <a href="sm_comparison.html">here</a>.
</li>
<li>
A standard reference of SUSY cross sections can be found <a href="susy_comparison.html">here</a>.
</li>
</ul>
<hr />
<h3>
LEGACY VERSION
</h3>
<p>
<b> WHIZARD 1:</b> The sources for version 1.97 can be
found <a href="oldsrc/whizard-1.97.tgz">
here</a>. <b> Note that with version 1.94 the development of
new features in version 1 stops; there will be only bug fixes
from now on. </b>
Look at <a href="manual_w1/manual004.html">this link</a> for
installation instructions.
The <a href="manual_w1/">manual</a> is
available in <a href="manual_w1/">HTML</a> and in <a
href="manual_whizard_1.ps">PostScript</a> and <a
href="manual_whizard_1.pdf">PDF</a>
formats.
</p>
<hr />
<hr />
<table width="100%">
<tr>
<td>This WWW page is brought to you by
<a href="http://www.tp1.physik.uni-siegen.de/staff/index.php">Wolfgang Kilian</a>,
<a href="http://james.physik.uni-freiburg.de/~reuter/">J&uuml;rgen Reuter</a>, and
<a href="http://theorie.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~ohl/">Thorsten Ohl</a>.
It is valid <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml11/">XHTML 1.1</a>, as can be
verified online by going to the <a href="http://www.w3.org/">W3C</a>
<a href="http://validator.w3.org/check/referer">MarkUp Validation Service</a>.
</td>
<td><a href="http://validator.w3.org/check/referer">
<img src="http://www.w3.org/Icons/valid-xhtml11"
alt="Valid XHTML 1.1!" height="31" width="88" /></a>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
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